NIH Pain Consortium
Developing the Therapeutic Potential of the Endocannabinoid System for Pain Treatment(PA-15-188)
The purpose of this NIH Pain Consortium-endorsed FOA is to support projects examining the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids and endocannabinoid system across a variety of pain conditions. Research supported under this FOA is wide-ranging. In general, the goal is to understand the role of cannabinoids in the management of chronic pain, in part, to help mitigate the high rate of use and abuse of opioids.
Basic and Translational Science Studies in the MAPP Research Network (FOA-MAPP-01282015)
The Data Coordinating Core (DCC) for the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network, supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health (NIH), invites research grant applications to conduct fundamental basic and translational research focused on urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS). Successful applicants will become members of a Basic and Translational Science Working Group (BTS WG) of the MAPP Research Network. BTS WG members will work collaboratively with the Network’s Steering Committee to develop final protocols to be integrated into the overall aims and objectives of ongoing studies. Between 4 and 8 one-year awards will be made in 2015. This is a one-time competition. Awards will be issued as sub-contracts from the MAPP Network DCC located at the University of Pennsylvania.
Pharmacogenomics of Orofacial Pain Management (R01) (RFA-DE-16-001)
The goal of this funding opportunity announcement (FOA) is to encourage research on the genetic basis of variability in therapeutic drug responses and adverse events in individuals with painful conditions of the dental, and orofacial region. The objectives are to determine the role of genetic variability in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug toxicities that contribute to and predict the clinical outcomes of analgesic treatment of individuals with acute and chronic pain conditions. Delineation of genetic variation in drug and neurotransmitter metabolizing enzymes and transporters, drug target molecules such as enzymes and receptors, and associated post-receptor intracellular signaling pathway molecules is an important outcome of this FOA. Identification of key molecular signatures that are predictive of a therapeutic response is a second objective. Clinical and basic science researchers are encouraged to form multidisciplinary teams to effectively address the goals of this FOA. The ability to categorize individuals who differ in their responses to analgesic therapy will aid health care providers in their ability to prescribe the best treatments for acute and chronic pain patients with a personalized/ precision approach. Although this FOA is focused on orofacial pain, it also may serve as a catalyst for the pain research community to explore new pharmacogenomics studies in chronic pain conditions that overlap with temporomandibular joint disorder.
Mechanistic Studies of Pain and Alcohol Dependence (R01) (PA-15-026)
This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages applications that propose to conduct mechanistic studies on the relationship between excessive alcohol drinking, alcohol dependence and pain. An association between chronic pain conditions and alcohol dependence has been revealed in numerous studies with episodes of alcohol abuse antedating chronic pain in some people and alcohol dependence emerging after the onset of chronic pain in others. Pain transmission and alcohol’s reinforcing effects share overlapping neural substrates giving rise to the possibility that chronic pain states significantly affect alcohol use patterns and promote the development of dependence and addiction. In addition, long term alcohol intoxication and alcohol dependence induce pain symptoms and may exacerbate chronic pain arising from other sources. The objective of this FOA is to understand genetic, pharmacological and learning mechanisms underlying the association between the propensity to drink excessively alcohol and pain responses.
Phenotypic Characterization of Chronic Pain in Sickle Cell Disease (R01) (HL-133, under PA-13-302)
The development of sophisticated methodologies to investigate pain phenotypes in subjects with chronic pain in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). Identification of effective methodologies is an essential step in the development of mechanism-based therapies for pain.
Biology of the Temporomandibular Joint in Health and Disease (R01, R21) (PA-14-358, PA-14-359)
The purpose of this FOA is to encourage research that will advance our understanding of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in health and disease and to stimulate research that complements previous efforts and focuses on the biology of joint function and the tissues that make up the TMJ. A better understanding of total joint structure and mechanics including the interactions of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, immune, and circulatory systems using new in vivo and in vitro models is needed. An expected outcome of this FOA is new knowledge that will provide a basis for developing novel approaches to prevent, diagnose, assess risk, and treat temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD).
Clinical Evaluation of Adjuncts to Opioid Therapies for the Treatment of Chronic Pain (R01)(PAR-14-225)
This announcement aims to fund applications designed to assess the clinical value of adjuncts prescribed to chronic pain patients together with opioid analgesics. Adjuncts of interest are either approved by the FDA or have previously been studied as an Investigational New Drug. Studies with adjuncts of interest should be focused on enhancing analgesia, rather than on reducing an adverse effect. A secondary purpose is to increase awareness among opioid prescribers of the potential value of adjunctive therapies by focused data dissemination. It is hoped that by increasing availability of data describing the use of opioid adjuncts, their use will increase and levels of opioids needed for analgesia will diminish. Reductions in the dosage of opioids prescribed would improve the quality of life of chronic pain patients by reducing opioid-associated adverse effects and lowering the risk of addiction development.
Research on Chronic Overlapping Pain Conditions (R01, R21) (PA-14-244, PA-14-243)
The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to encourage epidemiological, clinical and translational research that will increase our understanding of the natural history, prevalence, biological mechanisms, psychological variables, and clinical risk factors responsible for the presence of multiple chronic pain conditions in people with pain. Recent clinical findings suggest that substantial overlap may exist between chronic pain conditions. Individuals diagnosed with one disorder often exhibit characteristics of additional chronic painful conditions or transition to other diagnostic categories. A better understanding is needed of the prevalence of overlapping pain conditions, the underlying etiologies, the progression of these conditions, the evolution of these overlaps, and the therapeutic approaches best suited for treating subjects with these conditions. The main objective of this FOA is the formation of research groups with interests bridging expertise in pain mechanisms with translational and clinical expertise to address important unresolved questions about overlapping pain conditions. Applicants are encouraged to leverage existing and develop new resources pertinent to the study of these conditions. Applicants are encouraged to include researchers with complementary expertise from outside the pain field in their research teams who will enhance the breadth of research and understanding of comorbid chronic pain conditions.
Mechanisms, Models, Measurement, & Management in Pain Research (R01, R21, R03) (PA-13-118, PA-13-119, PA-13-117)
The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to inform the scientific community of the pain research interests of the various Institutes and Centers (ICs) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and to stimulate and foster a wide range of basic, clinical, and translational studies on pain as they relate to the missions of these ICs. New advances are needed in every area of pain research, from the micro perspective of molecular sciences to the macro perspective of behavioral and social sciences. Although great strides have been made in some areas, such as the identification of neural pathways of pain, the experience of pain and the challenge of treatment have remained uniquely individual and unsolved. Furthermore, our understanding of how and why individuals transition to a chronic pain state after an acute injury is limited. Research to address these issues conducted by interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research teams is strongly encouraged, as is research from underrepresented, minority, disabled, or women investigators.
NIH Centers of Excellence in Pain Education (Contract) (N0DA-15-4422)
The NIH Pain Consortium’s Centers of Excellence in Pain Education (CoEPEs) program was first funded in the spring of 2012, where the CoEPEs served as hubs for the creation, development, evaluation, integration, promotion, and distribution of pain management curriculum resources for medical and other health professional schools. Online interactive case-based scenarios will form the backbone of the curriculum resources. Many of our initial case-based scenarios are in production, and our first case will go live on the CoEPE website (http://painconsortium.nih.gov/CoEPEs.html) by May 2014 as a preview of things to come. This projected has now evolved to its second stage. The National Institutes of Health has released the Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) for N01DA-15-4422, the NIH Pain Consortium Centers of Excellence in Pain Education. You may see the BAA at the following link:https://www.fbo.gov/spg/HHS/NIH/NIDA-01/BAA-N01DA-15-4422/listing.html.
Competitive Revision Applications for Research on Complementary Approaches to Symptom Management in Military and Veteran Populations (R01) (PA-13-075)
This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) seeks competitive revision applications (formerly called competitive supplement applications). Specifically, NCCAM is encouraging competitive revision applications to augment currently active NCCAM R01 grants. NCCAM-funded researchers are encouraged to collaborate with Veteran Health Administration (VHA) or Department of Defense (DoD) clinicians or researchers to conduct research on complementary approaches for symptom management and health in military or VA populations. The research proposed should be focused on complementary approaches to pain and symptom management or improving health in U.S. military personnel, veterans and their families.
Pain in Aging (R01, R21, R03) (PA 13-058, PA 013-059, PA 13-060)
These FOAs encourage Research Project Grant (R01) applications from institutions/organizations that propose to study pain from an aging perspective, including studies of older populations, studies of age differences and age-related changes in pain processes and experiences, and studies of pain treatment and management in older adults. This FOA particularly encourages studies on 1) mechanisms and predictors of pain experience in aging, 2) development and evaluation of pain assessment tools for older adults or older model organisms, and 3) development and evaluation of pain management strategies in older adults, with particular attention to the challenges associated with treating pain in patients with multiple morbidities. Studies may address a variety of approaches and outcomes including biological (i.e., genetic, molecular, neurobiological), clinical, behavioral, psychological, and social factors. Both animal models (especially aged animals) and human subjects are appropriate for this FOA.
Biomechanisms of Peripheral Nerve Damage by Anti-Cancer Therapy (R01, R21) (PA-12-082, PA-12-083)
The purpose of these Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) is to encourage basic biologic research on damage to the peripheral nervous system instigated by pharmacologic cancer treatments, known as chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). The majority of acquired peripheral neuropathy research has focused on diabetic and inherited diseases; this FOA intends to stimulate neuroscience researchers to apply their expertise from studying these other neuropathies to the injuries incurred by cancer treatments. More data is necessary to understand the mechanisms of neuronal damage and to identify the targets instrumental to CIPN initiation and maintenance. Preclinical research that focuses not only on peripheral neuropathic pain but also on neurosensory symptoms such as paresthesias and peripheral anesthesias is invited. The ultimate goal of this FOA is to lead to a molecular understanding of CIPN that allows for the rational development of interventions that will treat or prevent CIPN.
Neurobiology of Migraine (R01, R21) (PA-14-068, PA-14-069)
These Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) are issued by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) in conjunction with the NIH Pain Consortium. It solicits R01 and R21 grant applications from institutions/organizations to perform innovative research that will elucidate the mechanisms underlying migraine, expand our current knowledge of the role of genetic, physiological, biopsychosocial, and environmental influences in migraine susceptibility and progression, and explore new therapeutic targets and therapies for acute migraine management and longer term prevention.
Biology of Manual Therapies (R01, R21) (PA-14-168, PA-14-167)
These FOAs encourage research grant applications (R01 or R21) from institutions/organizations that propose to investigate the basic science and mechanisms of action underlying the neurophysiological (especially the central nervous system responses), immunological, endocrinological and/or biomechanical consequences of manual therapies, such as spinal manipulation, mobilization and massage therapy.
NIH funding opportunities not focused primarily on pain, but including pain or pain-related conditions in the objectives or targeted topics of interest
Self-Management for Health in Chronic Conditions (R21, R01, R15) (PA-14-343, PA-14-344,PA-14-345)
The purpose of this initiative is to support research in self-management focused across conditions. A recent report from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) identifies the epidemic of chronic condition as the nation’s leading health challenge and calls for cross-cutting, coordinated public health actions for “living well with chronic illness”. This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) addresses that recommendation by describing an initiative that focuses on self-management as a mainstream science in order to reduce the burden of chronic illnesses/conditions. Self-management is the ability of the individual, in conjunction with family, community, and healthcare professionals, to manage symptoms, treatments, lifestyle changes, and psychosocial, cultural, and spiritual consequences associated with a chronic illness or condition – See more at: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PA-14-343
Translational Research to Help Older Adults Maintain their Health and Independence in the Community (R01, R21) (PA-14-161,PA-14-159)
These Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) invite applications using the R01 award mechanism for translational research that moves evidence-based research findings toward the development of new interventions, programs, policies, practices, and tools that can be used by organizations in the community to help older adults remain healthy and independent, productively engaged, and living in their own homes and communities. The goal of this FOA is to support translational research involving collaborations between academic research centers and community-based organizations with expertise serving or engaging older adults (such as city and state health departments, city/town leadership councils, educational institutions, workplaces, Area Agencies on Aging, and organizations funded or assisted by the Corporation for National and Community Service) that will enhance our understanding of practical tools, techniques, programs and policies that communities across the nation can use to more effectively respond to needs of the aging population.
Design and Development of Novel Technologies for Healthy Independent Living (R21) (PAR-14-119)
This FOA encourages Exploratory/ Developmental Research Project (R21) applications for design and development of novel technologies to monitor health or deliver care in a real-time, accessible, effective, and minimally obtrusive way. These may be novel sensor or monitoring systems, home-use point-of-care devices, home or mobile therapy or rehabilitation tools, or information systems and should have the goal of fostering healthy and independent living. The development of such technologies has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for people with disabilities, people aging with mild impairments, as well as individuals with chronic conditions.
Technologies for Healthy Independent Living (R01) (PAR-14-118)
This FOA encourages Research Project Grant (R01) applications for research and development of technologies that monitor health or deliver care in a real-time, accessible, effective, and minimally obtrusive way. These systems are expected to integrate, process, analyze, communicate, and present data so that the individuals are engaged and empowered in their own healthcare with reduced burden to care providers. The development of these technology systems has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for people with disabilities, people aging with mild impairments, as well as individuals with chronic conditions.
Behavioral Interventions to Address Multiple Chronic Health Conditions in Primary Care (R01) (PA-14-114)
This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) seeks Research Project Grant (R01) applications that propose to use a common conceptual model to develop behavioral interventions to modify health behaviors and improve health outcomes in patients with comorbid chronic diseases and health conditions. Specifically, this FOA will support research in primary care that uses a multi-disease care management approach to behavioral interventions with high potential impact to improve patient-level health outcomes for individuals with three or more chronic health conditions. The proposed approach must modify behaviors using a common approach rather than administering a distinct intervention for each targeted behavior and/or condition. Diseases and health conditions can include, but are not limited to: mental health disorders (e.g., depression), diabetes, smoking, obesity, chronic pain, alcohol and substance abuse and dependence, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, cancer and hypertension.
Chronic Illness Self-Management in Children and Adolescents (R01, R21) (PA-14-029, PA-14-030)
The purpose of these Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) is to encourage research to improve self-management and quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic conditions. Managing a chronic condition is an unremitting responsibility for children and their families. Children with a chronic condition and their families have a long-term responsibility for self-management. This FOA encourages research that takes into consideration various factors that influence self-management such as individual differences, biological and psychological factors, family and sociocultural context, family-community dynamics, healthcare system factors, technological advances, and the role of the environment.
Advancing the Science of Geriatric Palliative Care (R01, R21, R03) (PA-13-354, PA-13-355,PA-13-356)
These Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) encourage research grant applications focused on palliative care in geriatric populations. This FOA emphasizes studies in a variety of settings including ambulatory care, hospitals (and specific sites within hospitals including specialty wards, intensive care units and emergency departments), assisted living facilities, and short- and long-term care facilities; however, hospice and end-of-life settings are not included within the scope of this FOA, as they are the subject of other NIH programs. Rather, this FOA highlights research on palliative care in settings and at time points earlier in geriatric patients’ disease or disability trajectories. Types of studies may include observational, quasi-experimental, or interventional studies using primary data collection and/or secondary analyses. Leveraging on-going cohorts, intervention studies, networks, data and specimen repositories, and other existing resources and infrastructure are encouraged.
NIA Program Project Grant (P01) (PAR-13-258)
The National Institute on Aging invites the submission of investigator-initiated program project (P01) applications. The applications should address scientific areas relevant to the NIA mission. Each P01 application submitted to this FOA must include at least three related research projects that share a common central theme, focus, and/overall objective and an administrative core to lead the project.
NICHD Program Project Grant (P01) (PAR-13-257)
This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) issued by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH) invites innovative, multidisciplinary, interactive, and synergistic Program Project grant applications from institutions/organizations that propose to conduct research on reproductive, developmental, behavioral, social, and rehabilitative processes that determine the health or functioning of newborns, infants, children, adults, families, and populations. The purpose of the P01 activity code is to encourage investigation of complex problems relevant to NICHD’s mission and to facilitate economy of effort, space, and equipment. Under appropriate circumstances, the collaborative research effort of a Program Project can accelerate the acquisition of knowledge more effectively than a simple aggregate of research projects without thematic integration.
Research Grants Using the Resources from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) (R01, R21) (PA-13-236; PA-13-237)
This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages applications for research awards that are focused on the use the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) database, clinical data and images. This FOA seeks to expand the use of these resources by investigators in the broader research community. Examples of possible topics are: identification and validation of risk factors for knee and hip OA, including both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors; utilization of biospecimens in conjunction with research efforts to determine biochemical markers of early and/or progressive disease; analyses of existing OAI data to assess the effectiveness of biobehavioral, pharmacological, and other interventions that subjects use in response to OA pain; determination of predictive role of MRI changes for subsequent radiographic and clinical outcome changes related to development of knee OA; development of novel and efficient tools for analysis of MR images and x rays that can be applied to large numbers of images with high degrees of reproducibility for diagnosis and monitoring of OA-related changes; and research focused on the trajectory of disease including effects on other joint structures such as muscles, ligaments, and bone, with regard to points where interventions could be made, especially for subsets, to reduce OA severity. The publication of this FOA to the research community indicates to investigators and peer reviewers the importance that the NIAMS and other partners have placed on the use of the OAI resources.
Drug Abuse Dissertation Research: Epidemiology, Prevention, Treatment, Services, and/or Women and Sex/Gender Differences (R36) (PAR-13-182)
The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to invite applications for support of drug abuse doctoral dissertation research.
Behavioral & Integrative Treatment Development Program (R01, R34, R03) (PA-13-077,PA-13-078,PA-113-079)
The purpose of this FOA for R01 is to encourage behavioral intervention development research to test efficacy, conduct clinical trials, examine mechanisms of behavior change, determine dose-response, optimize combinations, and/or ascertain best sequencing of behavioral, combined, sequential, or integrated behavioral and pharmacological (1) drug abuse treatment interventions, including interventions for patients with comorbidities, in diverse settings; (2) drug abuse treatment and adherence interventions for use in primary care; (3) drug abuse treatment and adherence interventions that utilize technologies to boost effects and increase implementability; (4) interventions to prevent the acquisition or transmission of HIV infection among individuals in drug abuse treatment; (5) interventions to promote adherence to drug abuse treatment, HIV and addiction medications; and (6) interventions to treat chronic pain. Research of interest includes but is not limited to Stage II and Stage III efficacy research.
The purpose of this FOA for R34s is to encourage investigators to propose discrete well-defined projects that can be completed within three years. Projects of interest fall within the research domain of behavioral or integrated (e.g., behavioral and pharmacological) interventions targeting: (a) substance abuse (including comorbidities); (b) prevention of acquisition or transmission of HIV infection among individuals in substance abuse treatment; (c) promotion of adherence to substance abuse treatment, HIV and addiction medications; and (d) chronic pain. Specific examples include, but are not limited to studies focusing on: 1) Stage I intervention generation; 2) Stage I pilot or feasibility – and both should include the development of putative moderators, mediators, and change mechanisms. (3) Stage I studies to generate or refine substance abuse treatment or adherence interventions for use in primary care; (4) Stage I research to boost effects and increase implementability of interventions with creative use of technology.
The purpose of this FOA for R03s is to encourage investigators to propose discrete well-defined projects that can be completed within two years. Projects of interest fall within the research domain of behavioral or integrated (e.g., behavioral and pharmacological) interventions targeting: (a) drug abuse (including comorbidities); (b) prevention of acquisition or transmission of HIV infection among individuals in drug abuse treatment; (c) promotion of adherence to drug abuse treatment, HIV and addiction medications; and (d) chronic pain. Specific examples include, but are not limited to studies focusing on: 1) Stage I intervention generation; 2) Stage I pilot or feasibility – and both should include the development of putative moderators, mediators, and change mechanisms; (3) Stage I studies to generate or refine drug abuse treatment or adherence interventions for use in primary care; (4) Stage I research to boost effects and increase implementability of interventions with creative use of technology or through other means.
Drug Discovery for Nervous System Disorders (R01, R21) (PAR-13-048, PAR-13-049)
This FOA encourages research grant applications from applicant organizations directed toward the discovery and preclinical testing of novel compounds for the prevention and treatment of nervous system disorders.
NIA Clinical Trial Planning Grant Program (R34) (PAR-13-040)
The NIA is committed to identifying effective treatments for diseases and conditions associated with aging, including disorders of neural systems and to ascertain the associated health outcomes by supporting robust, well-planned and designed, and well-executed clinical trials. This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) aims to support the planning activities needed for the successful execution of complex and multi-site clinical trials as well as the establishment of Protocol and Manual of Procedures (MOP) as recommended by the NIA Clinical Research Study Investigator’s Toolbox (http://www.nia.nih.gov/research/dgcg/clinical-research-study-investigators-toolbox/startup).
Prescription Drug Abuse (R01, R21). (PA-13-015, PA-13-016)
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) encourages applicants to develop innovative research applications on prescription drug abuse, including research to examine the factors contributing to prescription drug abuse; to characterize the adverse medical, mental health and social consequences associated with prescription drug abuse; and to develop effective prevention and service delivery approaches and behavioral and pharmacological treatments. Applications to address these issues are encouraged across a broad range of methodological approaches including basic science, clinical, epidemiological, and health services research to define the extent of the problem of prescription drug abuse, to characterize this problem in terms of classes of drugs abused and combinations of drug types, etiology of abuse, and populations most affected (including analyses by age group, race/ethnicity, gender, and psychiatric symptomatology). Studies on individual- and patient-level factors, prescriber factors, and/or health system factors are encouraged, as are studies on all classes of prescription drugs with high abuse liability, including analgesics, stimulants, sedative/hypnotics and anxiolytics. Researchers are further encouraged to study the relationship between the prescription medication, the indication for which the medication was prescribed (e.g., pain, sleep disorder, anxiety disorder, obesity), and the environmental and individual factors contributing to abuse.
Center of Excellence for Research on CAM (P01) (PAR-13-220)
This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) is issued by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) to enable submission of applications that propose to conduct research that is of high-priority to NCCAM that requires synergistic collaboration between outstanding scientists, and the synthesis of multiple research approaches by multi-disciplinary research teams. The CERC mechanism is designed to support research in which the funding of three or four synergistic, highly meritorious projects as a group offers significant scientific advantages over support of the same projects as individual research grants. Each CERC must consist, throughout the duration of the award, of three or four research projects, focused on basic, mechanistic, and/or translational research questions relevant to the research priorities described in the current NCCAM Strategic Plan.
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Etiology, Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, and Treatment (R01, R21) (PAR-12-032, PAR-12-033)
This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) issued by the Office of Research on Women’s Health (ORWH) and co-sponsoring Institutes and Centers (ICs) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) encourages investigator(s)-initiated applications that propose to examine the etiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), sometimes referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), in diverse groups and across the lifespan. Applications that address gaps in the understanding of the environmental and biological risk factors, the determinants of heterogeneity among patient populations, the common mechanisms influencing the multiple body systems that are affected in ME/CFS are encouraged. The NIH is particularly interested in funding interdisciplinary research that will enhance our knowledge of the disease process and provide evidence based solutions to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and quality of life of all persons with ME/CFS. This interdisciplinary research may include the building of scientific teams to study and develop biomarkers, innovative treatment modalities, and/or the modifiable risk and protective processes specifically targeted by preventive and/or treatment interventions.